Sunday, May 29, 2011
PSA: Netflix for Android spontaneous deactivation fix
Today Netflix on my Android phone (a Nexus One) started giving me this error:
It looks like Netflix has been deactivated on this device. It could be an issue with your account or perhaps your device was deactivated on netflix.com. (2004)
Netflix only lets you have 6 devices activated per account, so at first I thought I might be bumping into the limit, but it turned out that that wasn't my problem.
The thing that eventually worked was to clear all data for the Netflix app. To do this:
- Go to the home screen.
- Press the menu button.
- Select "Manage apps" (or "Settings", then "Applications", then "Manage applications" on older versions of Android).
- Select the "Downloaded" tab.
- Select the Netflix app.
- Click on "Clear data".
The next time you open the Netflix app you'll need to sign in again, but then it should be working correctly.
I talked to Netflix customer support about this issue and apparently they had a ton of devices spontaneously deactivate in the last day or so. It sounded like they either don't really understand the cause, or just didn't want to share the details. Based on the fix it seems like some sort of authentication token either got corrupted or had the server-side rug pulled out from under it. Clearing the app data seems to force it to get a fresh token.
Monday, May 09, 2011
Android's 2D Canvas Rendering Pipeline
This is a conceptual overview of how Android's 2D Canvas
rendering pipeline works. Since Android's Canvas API is mostly a
pretty thin veneer on top of Skia it should also serve as a
reasonable overview of Skia's operation, though I've only looked
at Skia code that's reachable from Android's SDK, and when the Skia
and Android terminology differ (which is rare, modulo
Sk” prefixes and capitalization) I've used the
How and Why I Wrote This
I wrote this overview because I've been doing some Android
development recently, and I was getting frustrated by the fact
that the documentation for
particularly when it comes to all of the things that can be set in a
Paint object, is extremely sparse. I Googled, and
I asked a question on Stack Overflow but I couldn't find
anything that explained this stuff to my satisfaction.
This overview is based on reading what little documentation exists (often “between the lines”), doing lots of experiments to see how fringe cases work, poring over the code, and doing even more experiments to verify that I was reading the code correctly. I started writing it as notes for myself, but I figured others might benefit as well so I decided to post it here.
I say this is a “conceptual” overview because it does not always explain the actual implementation. The implementation is riddled with special cases that attempt to avoid doing work that isn't necessary. (I remember hearing some quote along the lines of “the fastest way to do something is to not do it at all”.) Understanding the implementation details of all of these special cases is unnecessary to understanding the actual end-result, so I've focused on the most general path through the pipeline. I actually avoided looking at the details of a lot of the special-case code, so if this code contains behavioral inconsistencies I won't have seen them.
Also, there are cases, particularly in the Shading and
Transfer sections, where the algorithm described here is far less
efficient but easier to visualize (and, I hope, understand) than
the actual implementation. For example, I describe Shading as a
separate phase that produces an image containing the source
colors and Transfer as a phase producing an image with
intermediate colors. In reality these two “phases” are
interleaved such that only a small set (often just one) of the
pixels from each of these virtual images actually “exists” at any
instant in time. There is also short-circuiting in this code
such that the source and intermediate colors aren't computed at
all for pixels where the mask is fully transparent (
This does mean that this overview can't give one an entirely accurate understanding of the performance (speed and/or memory) of various operations in the pipeline. For that it would be better to performing experiments and profile.
Also keep in mind that because this is documenting what is arguably “undocumented behavior” it's hard to say how much of what is described here is stuff that's guaranteed versus implementation detail, or even outright bugs. I've used some judgement in determining where to put the boundaries between phases (all of that optimization blurs the lines) based on what I think is a “reasonable API” and I've also tried to point out when I think a particular behavior I've discovered looks more like a bug than a feature to rely on.
There are still a number of cases where I'd like to do some more experimentation to verify that my reading of the code is correct and I've tried to indicate those below.
Entering the Pipeline
The pipeline is invoked each time a
Canvas.drawSomething method that takes a
Paint object is called.
Most of these drawing operations start at the first phase, Path Generation. There are two exceptions, however:
drawPaintskips Path Generation entirely and Rasterization consists of producing a solid opaque mask.
drawBitmaphas different behavior depending on the supplied
In the case of an
Bitmap, Path Generation and Rasterization are both skipped and the supplied
Bitmapis used as the mask.
Shaderis temporarily replaced with a
CLAMPmode. This means that setting a
Shaderto be used with a
drawBitmapcall with a non-
Bitmapis pointless. The pipeline is then executed as though
drawRecthad been called with a rectangle equal to the bounding box of the
According to Romain Guy, this behavior is intentional.
At the top of the diagram are the two main inputs to the pipeline:
the parameters to the draw method that was called (really multiple
inputs) and the “destination” image — the
connected to the
There are four main phases in the pipeline. The details of these
will be covered below. While there are exceptions, all of the phases
(mostly) follow this pattern: There are two or more sub-phases, the first of
which computes an intermediate result, while the later ones “massage”
this intermediate result. These later sub-phases often default to
the identity function. ie: they usually leave the intermediate result
alone unless explicitly told to do otherwise by setting properties on
The output of the first phase is a
This phase has three sub-phases:
Pathis constructed based on the
draw*method that was called. In the case of
drawPath, this is simply the
Pathsupplied by the client. In the case of
drawRect, the output is a
Pathcontaining the corresponding primitive.
PathEffect, it is used to produce a new path based on the inital
PathEffectis essentially a function that takes a
Pathas its input and returns a
PathEffectis set then the initial
Pathis passed on to the next phase unmodified. That is, the default
PathEffectis the identity function.
CornerPathEffect, which rounds the corners of the
DashPathEffectwhich converts the
Pathinto a series of “dashes”.
One interesting quirk: if the
Paintobject's style is
PathEffectis “lied to” and told that it's
FILL. This matters because
PathEffectimplementations may alter their behavior depending on settings in the
Paint. For example,
DashPathEffectwon't do anything if it is told the style is
The final sub-phase is “stroking”. If the
Paththis does nothing to the
Path. If the style is
STROKEthen a new “stroked”
Pathis generated. This stroked
Paththat encloses the boundary of the input
Path, respecting the various stroke properties of the
strokeWidth). The idea is that later phases of the pipeline will always fill the Path they are given, and so the stroking process converts Paths into their filled equivalents. If the style is
Pathis the stroked
Pathconcatenated to the original
Paint.getFillPath() can be used to run
the later sub-phases of this phase on a
Path object. As
far as I can tell this is the only significant part of the pipeline
that can be run in isolation.
Rasterization is the process of determining the set of pixels that
will be drawn to. This is accomplished by generating a “mask”, which
is a alpha-channel image. Opaque (
0xFF) pixels on this
mask indicate areas we want to draw to at “full strength”, transparent
0x00) areas are areas we don't want to draw to at all,
and partially transparent areas will be drawn to at
“partial strength”. This is explained more at the end of the final
phase. (When visualizing this process I find that it helps to think of
opaque as white and transparent as black.)
Rasterization has two completely different behaviors depending
on whether a
Rasterizer has been set on the
Rasterizer has been set then the default
rasterization process is used:
Pathis scan-converted based on parameters from the
styleproperty) and the
fillTypeproperty) to produce an initial mask.
Pixels “inside” the
Pathwill become opaque, those “ outside” will be left transparent, and those on the boundary may become partially transparent (for anti-aliasing). The mask will end up containing an opaque silhouette of the object.
fillTypedetermines the rule used to determine which pixels are inside versus outside. See Wikipedia's article on the non-zero winding rule for a good explanation if these different rules.
- If there is a
MaskFilterset, then the initial mask is transformed by the
MaskFilteris essentially a function that takes a mask (an
Bitmap) as input and returns a mask as output. For example, a
BlurMaskFilterwill blur the mask image.
MaskFilteris set then the initial mask is passed on to the next phase unmodified. That is, the default
MaskFilteris the identity function.
Rasterizer is set on the
Paint then, instead of the above two steps, the
Rasterizer creates the mask from the
MaskFilter is not
invoked after the
Rasterizer. (This seems like a
bug, but I've verified this behavior experimentally. Romain Guy agreed
that this is probably a bug.)
Rasterizer implementation in Android is
LayerRasterizer makes it
to create multiple “layers”, each with its own
Paint and offset (translation). This means that when
LayerRasterizer layers are present
there are n + 1
Paint objects in use: the
Paint (passed to the draw* method) and
an additional n
Paint objects, one for
LayerRasterizer takes the
for each layer runs the
Path through the pipeline of
Paint starting at the
PathEffects step and rendering to the mask. This has
some interesting consequences:
Each layer can have its own
PathEffect. These are applied to the
Paththat was generated by the top-level
PathEffect(if one was set). So if the
PathEffectof the top-level's
Paintis set to a
CornerPathEffectand a layer's
DashPathEffectthat layer will render a dashed shape with rounded corners.
Each layer can have its own
Rasterizer. Recursive rasterization is recursive.
Each layer can have its own
MaskFilterapplies to a separate mask in the sub-pipeline. Remember, the entire pipeline is being run again. For example, if there are two layers and one has a
BlurMaskFilterthe output of the other layer will not be blurred regardless of the order of the layers.
Bitmapof this sub-pipeline is an alpha bitmap, so only the alpha-channel component of the Shading and Transfer phases have any relevance.
Also note that
LayerRasterizer does not make use of
MaskFilter in the top-level
MaskFilter is not invoked after invoking
Rasterizer, there is no point in setting a
MaskFilter on a
Paint if the
Rasterizer has been set to a
LayerRasterizer. (Perhaps other
implementations could make use of the top-level
LayerRasterizer is the only
implementation included with Android.)
Shading is the process of determining the “source colors” for
each pixel. A color (can) consist of alpha, red, green, and blue
components (ARGB for short) each of which ranges
from 0 to 1. (In reality these are typically represented as bytes from
At a high level, the output of the
Shader can be
thought of as a virtual image containing the source colors: the “source” image.
The actual implementation doesn't use a
Bitmap, but rather
uses a function that maps from
(x,y) to an ARGB color (the “source color”) for
the given pixel, and this function is only called for coordinates
where the corresponding pixal may be altered by the source color. This
is really just an optimization, however.
Like the previous phases, Shading also has two sub-phases:
An initial “source” image is generated by the
Shader. If no
Shaderhas been set it's as if a
Shaderthat produced a single solid color (the Paint's Color) was used.
Shaderdoes not get the mask, the
Path, or the destination image as inputs.
ColorFilterhas been set then the colors in the source color image are transformed by this
The only input to the
ColorFilterduring the pipeline are ARGB colors. The
ColorFilterdoes not get the mask, the
Path, the destination image, or the coordinates of the pixel whose color it is transforming, as inputs.
Transfer is the process of actually transferring color to the
Bitmap. The transfer phase has the
The mask generated by Rasterization.
The “source color” for each pixel as determined by Shading.
The destination bitmap, which tells us the “destination color” for each pixel.
The transfer mode (
Once again, there are two sub-phases:
An intermediate image is generated from the source image and
destination image. For each each (x,y) coordinate the corresponding
source and destination colors are passed to a function determined by
XferMode. This function takes the source color and destination color and returns the color for the intermediate image's pixel at (x,y).
The second sub-phase takes the intermediate image, the destination image, and the mask as inputs and modifies the destination image. It does not use the
The intermediate image is blended with the destination image through the mask. Blending means that each pixel in the destination image will become a weighted average (or equivalently, linear interpolation) of that pixel's original color and the corresponding pixel in the intermediate image. The opacity of the corresponding mask pixel is the weight of the intermediate color, and its transparency is the weight of the original destination color.
In other words, a pixel that is transparent (
0x00) in the mask will be left unaltered in the destination, a pixel that is opaque (
0xFF) in the mask will completely overwritten by the corresponding pixel in the intermediate image, and pixels that are partially transparent will result in a destination pixel color that is proportionately between its original color and the color of the corresponding intermediate image pixel.
Note that the mask is not used in this sub-phase. In
particular, the source-alpha comes from the
the destination alpha comes from the destination image.
XferMode hasn't been set on the
Paint then the behavior is as though it was set to
This is the final phase. The pipeline is now complete.
More on Porter Duff Transfer Modes
The most commonly used transfer modes are instances of
PorterDuffXferMode. The behavior of a
PorterDuffXferMode is determined by its
PorterDuff.Mode. The documentation for each
the function that is applied to the source and destination colors
to obtain the intermediate color. For example,
SRC_OVER is documented as:
[Sa + (1 - Sa)*Da, Rc = Sc + (1 - Sa)*Dc]
Ra = Sa + (1 - Sa) * Da Rr = Sr + (1 - Sa) * Dr Rg = Sg + (1 - Sa) * Dg Rb = Sb + (1 - Sa) * Db
Dx are the intermediate (result), source and
destination values of the x color component.
Some additional notes on the
The documentation uses “
Sc” and “
Dc” rather than describing each red, green, and blue component separately. This is because Porter Duff transfer modes always treat the non-alpha channels the same way and each of these channels is unaffected by all other channels except for alpha.
DST_OVERare the only two modes that have the left hand side of this equation, “
Rc”, in their documentation. I'm guessing this inconsistency is a copy-and-paste error.
The alpha channel is always unaffected by non-alpha channels. That is,
Rais always a function of only
The documentation for
ADDrefers to a “
Saturate” function. This is just clamping to the range [0,1]. (I don't know why they use such an odd name for clamping, especially “saturation” usually refers to an entirely unrelated concept when talking about colors.)
The definition of many of these modes, including
OVERLAY, can be found in the SVG Compositing Specification. The Skia code actually links to (an older version of) this document. It has some good diagrams, too.
- This answer to “Android Edit Bitmap Channels” on Stack Overflow. Seeing this answer motivated me to learn more about how the pipeline actually works.
- The Android codebase. Since the documentation was so sparse and there didn't seem to be much information I looked to the source. My initial look stopped short when I realized everything was just a wrapper around “native” code.
- Skia documentation, particularly
SkPaint. Skia is the vast bulk of “native” (C++) code involved.
- “Stack Overflow: How do the pieces of Android's (2D) Canvas drawing pipeline fit together?”, a question I asked on Stack Overflow. One member of the Android team actually responded, but didn't really provide the details I was looking for.
- The Skia codebase. The code for
SkCanvas::drawPathis a good place to start.
- SVG Compositing Specification: W3C Working Draft 30 April 2009. This document is mentioned in the Skia code.
- SVG Compositing Specification: W3C Working Draft 15 March 2011. This document supercedes the one mentioned in the Skia code. I believe the relevant bits still apply, but there's more detailed explanation and some good diagrams.